Vocabulary Terms

CodeHS Intro Python

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A precise sequence of instructions for processes that can be executed by a computer
AND operation
Boolean operation: only evaluates to true when both of the operands are true
a value passed to a function when the function is called.
Assignment statement
changes the value that is held in a variable
A single value of either TRUE or FALSE.
Part of a program that does not work correctly.
Machine instructions for a Java processor
Case sensitivity
In programming, identifiers must use specific upper and lowercase characters
Text in a program that is not interpreted by the compiler, but exists for humans to read
To translate a program written in a high-level language into a low-level language all at once, in preparation for later execution.
Statement that only runs under certain conditions.
Data type
A certain kind of information, represented by a certain pattern of bits
Finding and fixing problems in an algorithm or program.
Dot notation
Used between an object reference or class reference and a member of that class
Equality operator
Comparison/logical operator: evaluates to true when the operands have the same value.
Another name for a runtime error.
Another name for object code that is ready to be executed.
Any valid unit of code that resolves to a value.
float data type
Primitive data type capable of representing a 32 bit floating point number
Floating point
A way to represent numbers so the decimal point can be at a varying point; usually utilizes scientific notation
For loop
A way to iterate a set of statements multiple times, defined by some conditions.
Formal language
Any one of the languages that people have designed for specific purposes, such as representing mathematical ideas or computer programs; all programming languages are formal languages.
A named group of programming instructions. Functions are reusable abstractions that reduce the complexity of writing and maintaining programs.A named group of programming instructions. Functions are reusable abstractions that reduce the complexity of writing and maintaining programs.
Global variable
A variable in a programming language which can be accessed by any running code within a program.
Greater than operator
Comparison/logical operator: evaluates to true when the left operand has a value more than the right operand.
Greater than or equal operator
Comparison/logical operator: evaluates to true when the left operand's value is at least as great as the right operand's.
High-level language
A programming language like Python that is designed to be easy for humans to read and write.
Short for Integrated Development Environment, this represents a way to create, test and debug code in some language.
In programming, this is the name given to a variable, method, class or other user-nameable segment of code
Sets up two code pathways: one when a condition is met, another when the condition is not met
The common programming structure that implements "conditional statements".
Critical in Python, indentation communicates blocks of related statements.
A whole number, or the negative of a whole number
To execute a program in a high-level language by translating it one line at a time.
Knights and knaves
Class of logic problems supposing an island where each inhabitant either only lies or only tells the truth
Less than operator
Comparison/logical operator: evaluates to true when the left operand's value is lower than the right operand's value.
Less than or equal operator
Comparison/logical operator: evaluates to true when the right operand's value is at least as great as the left operand's value.
A set of variables with starting index 0
List index
The numbered location of a list element, starting at 0
Typing a value directly into code
Local variable
A variable that is only accessible within a function where it is declared
Logical operator
Type of operator that evaluates one or more values and returns a boolean result of true or false
Loop condition
A boolean expression that evaluates to true or false and determines whether a loop will continue to execute
Low-level language
A programming language that is designed to be easy for a computer to execute; also called machine language or assembly language.
Multiline comment
Everything between /* and */ within a Java source code file
Natural language
Any one of the languages that people speak that evolved naturally.
NOT operation
Boolean operation: flips the truth value of its operand.
Object code
The output of the compiler after it translates the program.
a value that is acted upon by an operator.
character that represents an action
OR operation
Boolean operation: only evaluates to false when both operands are false; true otherwise.
Any device or component that receives information from a computer
An extra piece of information passed to a function to customize it for a specific need.
Parameter default value
What a parameter is set to when an argument is not supplied. Parameters with default values must be at the end of the list of parameters.
To examine a program and analyze the syntactic structure.
A property of a program that can run on more than one kind of computer.
An algorithm that has been coded into something that can be run by a machine.
Program semantics
The meaning of a program.
Program statement
A part of a program that executes a single action.
Python ** operation
Used to raise the left operand to the right operand (exponentiation)
Python def keyword
used to define a function in the Python language.
Python input() function
A way to gather input from the console which can affect the way a program operates.
Python int() function
A way to convert a value known to Python as another type of data like string or float into an integer
Python language
A programming language well suited for beginning programmers.
Python namespace
A system to make sure that all the names in a program are unique and can be used without any conflict
Python print() function
Outputs some information to the console.
Python shell
An interactive user interface to the Python interpreter. The user of a Python shell types commands at the prompt (>>>), and presses the return key to send these commands immediately to the interpreter for processing.
Python str function
Used to convert another data type into a string
Used to create a random integer as low or high as the two parameters
Reserved word
A word that has a special meaning to the programming language
Runtime error
An error that does not occur until the program has started to execute but that prevents the program from continuing.
Semantic error
An error in a program that makes it do something other than what the programmer intended.
Single line comment
Everything after two forward slashes // in a line of code
Source program
Text file containing a program
Statement block
A set of program statements that execute one after the other.
traditionally a sequence of characters, either as a literal constant or as some kind of variable
String concatenation
Connecting two strings together, often using the + operator
String literal
A series of characters between quotation marks, written directly into code
The vocabulary and grammar of a language, programming or otherwise.
Syntax error
A problem with the vocabulary or grammar of a program.
One of the basic elements of the syntactic structure of a program, analogous to a word in a natural language.
Truth table
A method of analyzing boolean expressions by investigating their truth values under all possible input conditions
Turtle backward() function
Command that lets you tell Tracy to move backward. In between the parentheses you need to put a number to tell Tracy how far to move backward.
Turtle circle() function
A way to move a turtle in a whole circle or part of a circle (an arc), or even to create non-circle regular polygons
Turtle color() function
A way to change the pen color when a turtle is drawing on the screen.
Turtle forward() function
A way to move a turtle forward by a certain number of pixels.
Turtle left() function
A way to turn a turtle counterclockwise by a number of degrees from 0-360.
Turtle pendown() function
A way to make a turtle draw on the screen when it moves after the command is executed.
Turtle penup() function
A way to stop drawing when a turtle moves on the screen after the command is executed.
Turtle right() function
A way to change the direction a turtle is facing by turning clockwise, using a number of degrees.
A placeholder for a piece of information that can change.
Variable Declaration
A program creating a variable in memory and giving that memory location a label
Variable scope
The range of code that has access to view and modify the value of a variable
while loop
Repeat a set of statements or commands multiple times as long as a condition is met
XOR operation
Exclusive or only returns true when the operands have opposite truth values